Wrinkles are a natural part of aging and are most prominent on sun-exposed skin, such as the face, neck, hands, and forearms. Wrinkles form when the skin loses its elasticity.
Facial expressions such as smiling, frowning, or squinting cause fine lines to appear early in life; as the individual grows older, these lines become more prominent.
However, many people dislike the appearance of wrinkles, and, as a result, they prefer wrinkle removal treatments.
The skin creases or folds or furrows of our faces are categorized into:
These develop from repeated facial movements. They become prominent with facial expressions and appear as lines or folds even if the skin is not in motion. Dynamic wrinkles can become static wrinkles over time.
These wrinkles are always visible and do not change with facial expressions. This results from a loss of elasticity and the takeover of gravity. Wrinkles that come with jowls are static.
Forehead lines: run horizontally over the top of the T-zone.
Worry lines: create an “eleven” between the brows.
Bunny lines: horizontal fine lines from the bridge of the nose and between the eyes.
Crow’s feet: radiate from the outer corners of the eyes.
Laugh lines: also called naso-labial folds, around the upper lip.
Lip lines: form vertical lines around the perimeter of the mouth.
Marionette lines: are formed over the chin vertically, and as the cheeks droop, jowl wrinkles form.
Wrinkles are caused by a mixture of multiple factors; though genetics mainly determine skin structure and texture.
Sun exposure is a major cause of wrinkles.
Smoking and Pollutants also contribute to wrinkling.
Ageing: As we age, our skin becomes both thinner and dryer due to the loss of elastic tissue and decreased production of natural oil.
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light: Exposure to UV light accelerates the natural aging process which further turns as wrinkles.
Habitual or repeated facial expressions: Facial movements and expressions, such as squinting or smiling, lead to fine lines and wrinkles.
Other factors: such as stress, exposure to environmental pollutants, diet, and nutrition also contribute to wrinkles.
There are several treatments available for wrinkles to smooth-out or make them less visible.
Topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene are derived from vitamin A, can reduce fine wrinkles, splotches, and roughness over the skin; but needs to apply for a few months to notice improvement.
Retinoids can cause temporary itching, redness, burning, or dryness; hence use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with it.
Other wrinkle creams containing active ingredients such as Retinol, antioxidants, and some peptides may have slight improvement.
Apart from this Facelift surgery, there are many effective treatments, now available which can take off your wrinkles or at least reduce them.
Chemical peel: Chemical peeling is a simple procedure that can improve superficial wrinkles. It is commonly performed with Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) obtained from various natural sources. The treatment is finished in a few minutes and requires about 4-6 sittings at weekly intervals for good results. Maintenance peels, once a month, are very popular for continued benefits.
Photodynamic rejuvenation: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can only treat fine wrinkles caused by sun exposure, but needs multiple sessions.
Dermabrasion: Dermabrasion removes the surface layer of skin with a rapidly rotating brush like a machine and the new skin grows in its place. This procedure has a long down-time and may take several months for pinkness to fade and to see results.
Microdermabrasion: Similar to dermabrasion, this technique removes only a fine layer of skin and requires multiple sessions to see the results.
Laser resurfacing is the precise ablation of superficial skin lasers which stimulates collagen remodeling and new skin growth resulting in the improvement of wrinkles.
Laser resurfacing may be ablative where the upper layers of skin are completely removed or non-ablative by stimulating the growth of new collagen fibres with effective the superficial layer of skin.
Fractional Laser Resurfacing is the latest technology where tiny islands of skin are removed from the skin with normal skin in between the laser pulses. Fractional Laser resurfacing is done as an outpatient procedure, usually with a local anaesthetic, and is very safe with minimal downtime.
It is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. When ingested in large quantities, the toxin causes paralysis of muscles. When injected in a very small amount into a particular muscle it causes paralysis of that muscle only. Therefore if it is injected into the small groups of muscles which cause frowning and wrinkling, the frown lines and wrinkle lines will disappear leaving surrounding muscles to function as usual. The toxin is injected with a very fine needle attached to a small syringe to treat:
Frown lines (mid-forehead)
Crow’s feet (side of eyes/cheeks)
The anti-wrinkling effect sets in within three to four days after the injection. The results are temporary and last for three to four months only, though there is individual variation.
Soft tissue fillers which include fat, collagen, and hyaluronic acid (Restylane) can be injected below the skin to cover up deeper wrinkles. They can also be used to add a fuller, more sensuous look to the lips. Your dermatologist will decide to use these injections along with Botulinum Toxin injection or Laser resurfacing for better results.
Fillers are the latest products available for facial rejuvenation and anti-ageing treatments. Fillers consist of Hyaluronic Acid (HA), a substance that naturally exists in the body. These fillers are injected directly into the skin.
They are designed to effectively reduce the appearance of unwanted age lines, wrinkles, and to contour and create volume, revitalizing the skin and visibly lifting and refining facial structures