Everyone desires to have flawless clear skin; due to skin pigmentation it affects our social activity and confidence in representing ourselves.
Skin pigmentation is one of the most common skin problems occurs due to changes in melanin pigment especially in tropical countries getting more expose to sun.
Melanin is a skin pigment produced by melanocytes situated in superficial layer of epidermis, which gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes. Melanin composition differ, fairer skin has a low composition and darker individuals with a high composition of melanin.
We at Clear Skin Laser Centre perform different types of skin pigmentation treatments (uneven skin tone or hyperpigmentation), which include interventional dermatological therapy and laser treatments for skin pigmentation.
Excessive sun exposure:Excessive sun exposure can cause an increase in melanin and results in tanning. It results in hyperpigmentation of the exposed skin.
Skin damage or diseases:Due to damage to skin results in the melanocytes producing excess or decrease melanin. Skin disorders such as dermatitis, pimple, or any infection can lead to the recovery of even skin tone after the damage. As a result of this, the skin shades over the affected area becomes lighter or darker.
Hormonal change: Hyperpigmentation is a direct result of an increased level of a hormone in your body that results in increased melanin synthesis. Pregnancy or during puberty or contraceptive pills, the hormone levels are affected and cause the increase in melanin production leading melasma in some women. Addison’s disease can produce hyperpigmentation mostly on the exposed areas of sunlight, such as the face, neck, and hands, and areas exposure to friction, such as elbows and knees.
Certain medications: as afamelanotide, non-steroidal medications, antibiotics, anti-epileptic drugs, or topical retinoids and chemotherapy drugs can cause hyperpigmentation as a side effect.
Hypersensitive reactions:An allergic hypersensitive reaction to an allergen may cause skin irritation and stimulates the melanocytes to causes hyperpigmentation.
Genetic:in some, it may be genetically inherited to cause pigmentation. Hence it is important to protect from sunlight or skin damage.
Post skin procedureslike chemical peels, phototherapy or laser treatment can cause hyperpigmentation.
The treatment depends on the cause and condition you are treating. If pigmentation due to melanin affects an exposed site, the use of sunscreen SPF 50+ will minimize darkening caused by exposure to sunlight. This is may not be so effective for melanin residing in the dermis or to reduce pigmentation caused by drug or tattoo.
OTC Skin Lightening creams: As most of time people get frustrated and give trial for these bleaching creams over the counter as a home remedy but most of the time they land in trouble due to triple combination.
Prescription-based Skin Lightening creams:
Dermatologists recommend the application of non-hydroquinone based topical creams to even out skin tone and makes the skin firm and smooth. The most popularly used are:
The procedures performed by dermatologist are considered to be best treatments for pigmentation on face as it helps even out skin tone or hyperpigmentation and makes the skin soft, smooth and firm. The following are popular practised are:
Chemical peels should be done under the supervision of a dermatologist, will choose the type and strength of the chemical peel (glycolic acid, hydroquinone, salicylic acid) best suited to you. The superficial skin is peeled off, which allows topical tyrosinase inhibitors to penetrate more effectively.
Mechanical exfoliation by microdermabrasion, vacuum suction, and abrasive material is used to exfoliate the top layers of skin. Multiple sessions will be needed, in combination with sunscreen and other creams to get the optimum results.
Laser treatment emits light energy which is quickly converted into heat and passes harmlessly through the upper layer of the skin. Laser target the excess pigment in the skin called melanin by fracturing the pigment into tiny particles or by vaporizes the damaged cells; thus inducing collagen generation and subsequent new cell formation. Laser Treatments for skin hyperpigmentation destroy the pigment while leaving the melanocyte cells alone; hence it is ideal, very safe and most effective.
Q-switch nano and pico laser with 1064nm wavelength are the gold standard with highest success rate in treating skin pigmentation by targeting the melanin pigment in the skin giving an even skin tone.
Fractional skin resurfacing laser such as CO2 and erbium yag laser works by vaporizing the damaged cells; thus inducing collagen generation and subsequent new cell formation. Hence these lasers help in hyperpigmentation and even fine lines or wrinkles.
IPL targets the melanin in skin due to sun damage and redness as it emits an intense light to penetrate into deeper skin layers and commonly called as photofacial.